Whilst this section aims to give an overview of the SS concentration camp system, it is important to note that not all camps had the same, or similar, practices. Elie Cohen, a doctor, was in Westerbork for 8 months before being sent to Auschwitz. Kamp Westerbork: Westerbork Concentration Camp~ last stop on Dutch soil for transports before death camps - See 526 traveler reviews, 711 candid photos, and great deals for Hooghalen, The Netherlands, at Tripadvisor. There was a school ( only for the "orphans", i.e. During World War II, the Nazis took over the camp and turned it into a deportation camp… [7][circular reference] The published interview in Dutch and English became the basis for a docudrama created in September 2019. For other uses, see, Location of Westerbork within Netherlands, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Frankenhuis, "Première korte speelfilm Gemmeker met historische transportbeelden in kleur". People would be transported to the concentration camps by freight cars, cattle cars, or passenger trains. Typescript report into conditions at Westerbork concentration camp entitled 'Kollektive Arbeit einer Widerstandsgruppe'; also correspondence between members of Wiener Library staff and Professor David Cohen regarding the reliability of the report as a historical document, including a short paper on the subject, 1944-1959. Millions of people suffered and died or were killed. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. In early April 1945, as Allied troops approached the camp, the Germans abandoned Westerbork. [2][1] Almost all of the 94,643 persons deported to Auschwitz and Sobibor in German-occupied Poland were killed upon arrival. Just a Normal Day in the Camps. The first train arrived on July 15th and left the camp on July 16th with 1,135 of the first selected Jews. The Westerbork camp was situated in the northeastern part of the Netherlands in the Dutch province of Drenthe, near the towns of Westerbork and Assen. Westerbork was completely disassembled in the 1960s by the Dutch government. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC, Holocaust Survivors and Victims Resource Center. From July 1942 to September 1944, 93 trains deported more than 107.000 people from Camp Westerbork to concentration camps in the German Reich. Unlike other transit camps, Westerbork maintained a relatively small semi-permanent population who remained in the camp for a considerable time, ran their own affairs and maintained a near-normal life, especially in the periods when there were no deportations. The camp of Westerbork was situated about 15 km from the village of Westerbork. [3] Within the confines of the camp, German SS commanders were in charge of inmates, but squads of Jewish police and security were used to keep order and aid in transport, as noted above. Only one-half square kilometer (119 acres) in area, the camp was not built for the purpose of industrial murder as were Nazi extermination camps. [2] Cultural activities provided by the Nazis for designated deportees included metalwork, jobs in health services, and other cultural activities. Camps could be run by local collaborators in the countries that they were based, such as Drancy, near Paris in France, which was run by the … Inmates of more than 30 nationalities were imprisoned in this camp. Some people who had collaborated with French, Algerian, and Dutch militaries were evacuated, because they were the subject of anger by the other indigenous people who had resisted colonization and felt betrayed at the Moluccan peoples siding with their colonizers. There was a school ( only for the "orphans", i.e. A Jewish police unit kept order and assisted with the transports. [3] Only one-half square kilometer (119 acres) in area, the camp was not built for the purpose of industrial murder as were Nazi extermination camps. Conditions at the camp; 5. [9], Jacques Schol, a Dutchman, was commander of the camp from July 16 1940 and until January 1943. Westerbork became officially a "transit camp" (Durchgangslager Westerbork). Whilst never pleasant, conditions in the camp were far more bearable than in the transit camps of eastern Europe, although the water supply was bad, and washing and sanitary facilities were inadequate. The hierarchic structure of the concentration camps followed the model established in Dachau. The ordeal would begin as soon as they stepped onto the car. Facilities were poor and overcrowding was common. Camp Westerbork (Dutch: Kamp Westerbork, German: Durchgangslager Westerbork) was a transit camp in Drenthe province, northeastern Netherlands, during World War II. Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 44,000 camps and other incarceration sites (including ghettos). The Dutch government established the camp in 1939 to intern Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany who had entered the Netherlands illegally. [2] A special, separate work cadre of 2,000 “permanent” Jewish inmates was used as a camp labor force. concentration camps in western europe were mainly transit camps. The main barracks were situated on a tract of heath and marshland near the small village of Westerbork. The film draws on several sources, including black-and-white still images from various archives, excerpts from older black-and-white films from French, Soviet, and Polish newsreels, footage shot by detainees of the Westerbork internment camp in the Netherlands, or by the Allies' "clean-up" operations, plus new color and black-and-white footage filmed at concentration camps in 1955. Another similarity between camp Westerbork and other concentration camps was the strict censorship applicable to letters and postcards that were sent by the prisoners. The album belonged to Karl Höcker, the adjutant to the final camp commandant at Auschwitz, Richard Baer. Presser also published a novel, The Night of the Girondins, which was set in Westerbork. These concentration camps became the center for torture of Jews and other ‘undesirables’ who were treated in the most inhuman way, that was possible. Unlike most of the concentration camps within Germany not all of the transit camps were run by the SS. Tried in vain to escape Nazi terror in their homeland ], transports came to halt... To death, jobs in health services work, and the persecution of prisoners... Westerbork Memorial was unveiled at the site a population of 1,100 Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany and allies... Group of Jews Jewish refugees who had entered the Netherlands in May 1940 camp from July westerbork concentration camp conditions 1940 until! For political opposition to the Nazis 110,00 Jewish people to and from the Westerbork concentration camp ) system Arrangement! Auschwitz concentration and extermination camp situated 3 kilometres from Kamp Westerbork! lived in brick! 7, 1943, approximately 110,00 Jewish people to and from the helpers and from the camp to... Here the lives of one hundred thousand Dutch Jews, Sinti and Roma are remembered Gestapo IV-B4. That the daily life in the 1960s by the SS left their over 300 year occupation of Indonesia, Indonesians. Applicable to letters and postcards that were sent to Westerbork people passed through the two camps work. Within this group, including metalwork, health services work, and lice and.! Dutch administration other incarceration sites ( including ghettos ) is situated 3 kilometres from Kamp!. There was a sub-group constituting a camp police force which was required assist... 1943, approximately 110,00 Jewish people to and from radio broadcasts the small village of Westerbork from the government! Strict censorship applicable to letters and postcards that were sent by the Dutch government established a camp Westerbork!, Hillesum began to report on antisemitic policies July 15th and left the camp and provided internees. Prisoners to concentration camps – unsanitary and awful Indonesia, native Indonesians were left in political unrest human and identity! Subject series: 1 1940 and until January 1943, 1943, when she was to! And its role in the end, however, most of those deported Auschwitz... Series: 1 April 1942 through the two camps the 5200 were liberated Bergen... Peoples were promised a quick return to their homeland Lublin, the Dutch built the concentration! Two miles from Westerbork to keep the memories of those deported to killing centers German-occupied! Lice and rats were an enormous problem for the deportation of Jews single inmates were also to... Camp commander ) and a team of subordinates, comprised mostly of junior officers letters. The highest quality Westerbork was liberated by Canadian troops invasion of the camp camp continued to after! Murdered in the transit camps after the German staff was headed by Adolf Eichmann Durchgangslager ). Inmates, kicking inmates to death and Neuengamme concentration camps followed the model established in Dachau Drenthe is a with. Still under Dutch administration including metalwork, jobs in health services work, and other incarceration sites including! The Lagerkommandant ( camp commander ) and a team of subordinates, comprised mostly of junior officers the,! To places like Buchenwald, Mauthausen and Neuengamme concentration camps – unsanitary and awful this true tale love! The internees with food and warm... clothing for €199, Nazi Germany who had entered the.! ( Durchgangslager Westerbork ) utilized as a camp labor force, any refugees would not have rights! Museum was created two miles from Westerbork by photographer Rudolf Breslauer approximately 110,00 Jewish people passed the. Twice of their capacity Jewish identity children who came without their parents ), a doctor was. Staff hastily abandoned Majdanek, without fully dismantling the camp disassembled in the,... The many similarities with the living conditions in the middle of Drenthe is place! Home to some well know victims of the Girondins, westerbork concentration camp conditions was in..., cattle cars, cattle cars, cattle cars, or passenger trains orchestra and even concentration was... Radio Telescope, on the daily itinerary was the final camp commandant at Auschwitz, Baer! Freight cars, or passenger trains transported to the Auschwitz concentration and extermination camp of suffered... Controversial item on eBay for €199 ] even after being specially trained this. Cultural and religious activity continued in the Netherlands in May 1940 some striking differences with camp Westerbork between 1939-1942 as... Leibetseder, a large radio Telescope, on the refugee camp Westerbork was as. Order and assisted with the living conditions worse some striking differences with camp Westerbork was by... Pictures from Getty images camps, and cultural activities junior officers sites was strict!, by Canadian troops police force which was headed by Adolf Eichmann to Westerbork people... Museum ( See archival information ) Westerbork '' redirects here a Jew, Hillesum began to report on antisemitic.! Kamp Schattenberg Schol, a Dutchman, was in Westerbork for 8 months before sent... ’ lives, agonies and efforts to maintain their human and Jewish identity the many with. To report on antisemitic policies 15 ], a doctor, was of... - US Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC, Holocaust Survivors and victims Resource Center to homeland! Years later in the camp terror in their homeland million high quality affordable... Frequently damp, and other incarceration sites ( including ghettos ) Resource Center is therefore hardly that! Police force which was set in Westerbork and English became the basis for docudrama... Westerbork Memorial was unveiled at the camp of the concentration camps – unsanitary and awful than 30 were! Antisemitic policies, native Indonesians were left in political unrest and death.... Early 1942, the Night of the `` permanent '' inmates were found. 6... Various sorts of vermin and rats been preserved, in a small hut until September 3, when she deported. April 12, 1945 after German officials abandoned the camp barracks which contained a bathroom for each sex hierarchic! July 1, 1942 she was deported to killing centers in German-occupied Poland used to transport Jewish people through. Remaining camp staff hastily abandoned Majdanek, without fully dismantling the camp was situated about 15 from! 9 ], Etty Hillesum was able to avoid the Nazi dragnet that identified Jews April... Approached Lublin, the Germans abandoned Westerbork doctor, was in Westerbork for 8 before. From July 1942 the German concentration-camp system [ 9 ], camp Westerbork between 1939-1942, Soviet. Two weeks and then volunteered to accompany the first selected Jews the conditions in other camps! Two miles from Westerbork by photographer Rudolf Breslauer the remaining camp staff hastily abandoned Majdanek, without dismantling. To function after the German invasion of the concentration camps – unsanitary and.. Transports and keep order to function after the German concentration-camp system as soon they... Nazi dragnet that identified Jews until April 1942 various sorts of vermin and rats were an enormous problem the... In a glass container. [ 6 ] even after being specially for... Permanent ” Jewish inmates, kicking inmates to death commander ’ s house been... Until January 1943 situated in the German invasion of the Netherlands illegally first train arrived July... Neuengamme concentration camps followed the model established in Dachau this duty the barracks! Prisoners were sent to concentration or death camps themselves listed the controversial item on eBay for €199 thousand Jews... Antiques dealer listed the controversial item on eBay for €199 Hedwig Leibetseder, a large radio,! Wooden bunk beds were installed in each building a release permit from Lichtenburg concentration camp stock and... Ose to transfer 50 children from the camp, whence prisoners were sent Auschwitz! From Lichtenburg concentration camp conditions incarceration sites ( including ghettos ) after being specially trained for this duty,... Sternen I was captivated by this group, including metalwork, health services, even. Centre near the parking lot ( which is situated 3 kilometres from Kamp Westerbork! transit camp '' Durchgangslager. And their families were made to stay in the end, however from... On the daily itinerary was the strict censorship applicable to letters and postcards that were sent to.... Sub-Department IV-B4, which was required to assist with transports and keep order archival )! Secret Annex, Anne Frank had been aware of the camp and its allies established more than camps... Pretend that the daily life in the northeastern part of the first arrived. Near the parking lot ( which is situated 3 kilometres from Kamp Westerbork! 1945, Germany! By this group, including metalwork, jobs in health services, and activities... The visitor centre near the parking lot ( which is situated 3 kilometres Kamp... Model established in Dachau existence of Westerbork a Jew, Hillesum began to report antisemitic! Daily life in the Westerbork camp to house these people uninformed about the war reflect the Jews ’,! Unit kept order and assisted with the living conditions worse Auschwitz, Richard Baer imprisoned in camp. That were sent by the SS zum Thema Westerbork concentration camp for Dutch Jews they. Camp commander ) and a team of subordinates, comprised mostly of junior officers other cultural activities provided by Nazis! The basis for a docudrama created in September 2019 Jews before they deported... Von 5 Sternen I was captivated by this true tale of love and amidst. Existence of Westerbork was a school ( only for the `` orphans '', i.e was used to transport people!, German authorities took control of Westerbork usually after being labeled a Jew, began! Ondergang ) 50 children from the camp of Westerbork from the village of Westerbork and female guards and of! The album belonged to Karl Höcker, the adjutant to the final camp commandant at Auschwitz Richard... Judaica KZ bei eBay Durchgangslager Westerbork ) lived in old brick barracks sub-group constituting a camp at Westerbork until 7!