Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. The authors have no competing interests to declare. The soil microbes also display homeostasis. Soil Biol Biochem. soil was highest in the sunny bottom slope, and there was no significant difference in the C:N ratio between the sunny bottom slope and the other slope positions. More information: Matthias C. Rillig et al. 2009;15:544–1556. CAS  For Ecol Manage. J Arid Environ. Soil Biol Biochem. Such oligotrophs, commonly found in soils, compete with each other for substrate even under remarkably low population densities. At 10–20 cm, the soil TP contents in the sunny slopes of Q. variabilis and L. principis-ruprechtii and the shady slope of C. coggygria Scop. Springer Nature. Soil microbial community structure and functional characteristics influence the biogeochemical cycle process [3, 4]. The soil samples from the same depth of each sample plot were fully mixed. Forests. An SS, Mentler A, Acosta-Martínez V, Blum WEH. NOTE: Your email address is requested solely to identify you as the sender of this article. The results of this study were consistent with those reported in the literature [47, 48]: Slope aspect and position impact only C:P and N:P and have no impact on C:N. Soil ecological stoichiometry also vary according to soil and other microtopography factors [13]. Correlations showed that the C, N and P contents of soil and microbial biomass and their ecological stoichiometry had no correlation with MBN:MBP. When microbes are deficient in elements, they can be obtained from the soil. Biol Rev. The authors have declared no competing interest. Introduction. Under the same tree species conditions, aspect is the most important factor influencing soil nutrient content and soil microbial biomass at a soil depth of 0–10 cm, whereas slope position has a greater impact at 10-20 cm. 60% pore space saturation (field capacity) is ideal for respiration. Bacterial density as an unexpected factor regulating decomposition by soil oligotrophs, Univ Rennes, CNRS, Géosciences Rennes - UMR 6118, Stanford University, Department of Earth System Science, MISTEA, Univ. The environmental factor analysis showed that the tree species factor could account for 80.5% of the variation, and the slope aspect and position and other topographic factors could account for 8.8% of the variation. [49] found that soil and microbial biomass stoichiometry varied according to language use and soil depths and that the soil C:N:P ratio noticeably decreased after forests were interference. New Phytol. Townsend AR, Cleveland CC, Asner GP, Bustamante MMC. In addition to soil BD, many studies have implied that soil pH is one of the most important factors affecting soil fungal communities (Maestre et al., 2015; Hu et al., 2017). Forestry College, Henan University of Science & Technology, No. Facing north or south: Does slope aspect impact forest stand characteristics and soil properties in a semiarid trans-Himalayan valley? 2007;85:235–52. Devi NB, Yadava PS. There were 108 (3 × 3×2 × 2×3) sample plots in total (including three replicates for each combination). 2003;40:523–34. The mass ratio is often used in terrestrial ecosystem research [37], while the molar ratio is often used in aquatic ecology research; thus, the former was adopted for the stoichiometric ratios of C, N and P of soil and microbial biomass. Heuck et al. Tomohiro Y, Fujio H, Tokuchi N. Seasonal effects on microbial community structure and nitrogen dynamics in temperate forest soil. Soil Biol Biochem. As shown in Fig. Nature of soil and 11. Bacterial decomposition of organic matter in soils is generally believed to be mainly controlled by the accessibility of bacteria to their substrate. In September 2018, the three most representative forest stands in the investigated area, i.e., Q. variabilis, L. principis-ruprechtii and C. coggygria Scop., were selected. Cleveland and Liptzin [6] conducted an SMA analysis of forest soil and grassland soil microbial biomass and found that the slope of soil microbial biomass C-N, C-P and N-P was approximately 1 or less than 1 and that soil microbial biomass C was significantly related to N and P, indicating that soil microbes had homeostasis. There was no obvious regularity for the other slopes. Soil available nitrogen was the most associated with soil microbial functional gene structure. 2004;119:33–53. Effect of tree species on the distribution of soil C, N and P contents. A different capital letter or letter combination indicates a significant difference in the SOC content among tree species. Effects of tree species and topography on soil and microbial biomass stoichiometry in Funiu Mountain, China. Ecol Appl. The better water and nutrient conditions in the shady slope facilitate the growth of tree species. J Northwest For Univ. Ecological stoichiometry characteristics of leaf-litter-soil in different plantations on the Loess Plateau, China. Sterner RW, Elser JJ. The relationship between the C, N, and P contents in soil and those in soil microbial biomass was expressed by the equation lgy = a+blgx, where a is the intercept and b is the slope. In each sample plot, 5–6 sampling points were randomly selected, with a distance between sampling points of about 10 m. The floating leaves were gently removed, and soil samples were collected from depths of 0–10 and 10–20 cm with a soil auger whose bit length was 30 cm. 5). 2004;50:196–204. The study aimed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Environmental factors (tree species, slope position and aspect) affect the C, N and P contents in the soil and microbial biomass of different soil depths (0–10 cm, 10–20 cm) and their ecological stoichiometry. Eur J Soil Biol. Distribution of microbial biomass and activity of extracellular enzymes in a hardwood forest soil reflect soil moisture content. Zhu et al. One part of fresh soil was preserved at 4 °C and the contents of soil microbial biomass C, N and P were measured within 10 days. Tian YW, He CL, Xu SJ, Wang N. Spatial distribution and dynamic changes in soil organic carbon density in a restored grassland converted from farmland. Plant roots present in the surface soil bind the soil particles to from soil aggregate, and therefore reduce the bulk density of the surface soil. 5. Article  Tree species and topography have significant impacts on the ecological stoichiometry of soil and soil microbial biomass, and soil microbes have homeostasis. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. Soil Biol Biochem. The p values were adjusted by the false discovery rate. [10] found that a high N:P ratio in soil microbes in the vegetation restoration area of the Loess Plateau demonstrated that plant growth was limited by P. In this study, the average soil microbial biomass N:P of tree species was 10.9 (equivalent to the atomic ratio of 24.1), which suggested that there was a relative lack of N in this area and that tree species may be mainly limited by N. This result was consistent with the conclusion reached by Bai et al. Effects of environmental factors (topography, tree species and soil layers) on soil and microbial biomass stoichiometry according to redundancy analysis. Distribution characteristics of soil MBC, MBN and MBP for different tree species. To maximize this ecosystem service, more knowledge of factors influencing C sequestration is needed. There was a significant difference in the soil TN contents between different slope positions for the shady slope of L. principis-ruprechtii and the sunny slope of C. coggygria Scop. Washington: US Government Printing Office; 1954. Google Scholar. Soil stabilization technology based on microbial-induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) has gained widespread interest in geotechnical engineering. Amount and Sources of Applied Nitrogen 6. Biogeochemistry. The study aimed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Environmental factors (tree species, slope position and aspect) affect the C, N and P contents in the soil and microbial biomass of different soil depths (0–10 cm, 10–20 cm) and their ecological stoichiometry. Overall, our results demonstrate that soil bacteria rather than fungi can reflect the changes in plant and soil properties with increasing stand age, and the shifts in the predominant … The specific information about the sampling points is shown in Table 1. Scand J For Res. 2014;5:1391–408. Otherwise, nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis one-factor ANOVA was used. Different tree species may lead to changes in litter quantity and quality or changes in the main composition of the microbial community. A. MaxwellS INTRODUCTION The effect of moisture content upon density in compaction of soils as dev­ eloped by Proctor has been widely rec­ ognized and studied in considerable de­ tail. factors that influence the activity of the microbial population in soil. Food and energy supply 10. The unfumigated soil was extracted in the same way, and the extract was filtered through a 0.45-μm syringe-driven filter. soil microbial activity (Linn and Doran, 1984). PubMed Central  (2020). [14] found that the effect of different tree species on soil organic C and N and soil MBC and MBN was greater than the effect of topographic factors (such as slope position) in the Loess Plateau, consistent with the results of this study. Bulk density reflects the soil’s ability to function for structural support, water and nutrient and microbial life movement, and soil aeration. Cultural practices (Tillage): Cultural practices viz. Spatial and Resource Factors Influencing High Microbial Diversity in Soil Jizhong Zhou,1,2* Beicheng Xia, 2† David S. Treves, L.-Y. CAS  Factors that influencing microbial population. Soil fertility 2. At 0–10 cm, the soil microbial biomass C contents of the three tree species were significantly greater than those at 10–20 cm. Soil Biol Biochem. At the same time, the SMA analysis results indicate that the soil C, N and P contents and soil MBC, MBN, and MBP contents show a nonisometric relationship (Table 5), the slope between soil MBC and soil C is significantly greater than 1, and the slope between soil MBP and soil P content is even greater. Effect of three tree species on the soil organic C, N and P contents. There is a relatively stable environment in the soil. In the Funiu Mountain area, topographic factors affect soil microclimate conditions. Forests. Biologia. Fanin et al. (2) Forest soil microbes display homeostasis. Hoboken: Wiley; 1999. For data with a normal distribution, one-way ANOVA was used for comparisons among groups (α = 0.05). 2004;101:11001–6. The effect of tree species on soil total nitrogen (TN) content was similar to that of SOC, and its effect on soil total phosphorus (TP) content was not significant. In this study, slope aspect and position had little impact on the ecological stoichiometry of soil microbial biomass (Fig. The significant correlation between the soil C, N and P contents and the soil MBC, MBN, and MBP contents revealed that shady slopes, compared with sunny slopes, have higher soil C, N and P contents and soil MBC, MBN and MBP contents. The contents of C, N and P in soil microbial biomass were determined using chloroform fumigation extraction (CFE) [7, 31, 32]. The highest content of soil MBP was in the bottom slope of C. coggygria Scop (19.0 mg/kg), and the lowest was in the shady top slope of Q. variabilis (16.5 mg/kg). Tischer et al. Plant N:P usually varies with changes in tree species or vegetation [6, 51], mainly due to the biogeographical gradient difference in soil matrix age. Considering fungal: bacterial dominance in soils-Methods, controls, and ecosystem implications. Rapid forest vegetation growth consumes excessive soil nutrients [12,13,14]. Olsen SR, Cole CV, Wantabe FS, Dean LA. The soil microbial biomass N content was similar to the C content. The availability of N, K, P determines the fertility of the soil, which indirectly affects the microbial population. 1990;22:1167–9. 2006;81:1–31. Tree species also have a significant impact on soil MBC:MBN and MBC:MBP (Fig. ; VS1: sunny bottom slope; MS1: sunny middle slope; RS1: sunny top slope; VS2: shady bottom slope; MS2: shady middle slope; RS2: shady top slope. The C:N ratio in the L. principis-ruprechtii soil was highest in the shady top slope, and there was no difference between the different slope positions of L. principis-ruprechtii. 939. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen were measured using a total organic carbon analyzer (Shimadzu TOC-V CPH, Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan). This article throws light upon the nine main factors affecting soil structure. A general linear model (GLM) was used to assess the effects of tree species, slope aspect, position and their combined effect. 5), and their impact is greater at 0–10 cm than at 10–20 cm, which is consistent with the conclusions reached by Cleveland and Liptzin [6]. Reich PB, Oleksyn J. Different tree species have different litter yields and physicochemical properties, and the amount of nutrient content returned to soil may also vary [40]. Tree species, as a potential factor, influences soil microbial ecological stoichiometric ratios. At a depth of 0–10 cm, the soil organic C contents in different stands followed the order of C. coggygria (27.7 ± 5.2 g/kg) > Q. variabilis (24.5 ± 4.9 g/kg) > L. principis-ruprechtii (20.8 ± 4.3 g/kg) (P < 0.05). Geoderma. The results obtained were basically consistent at both depths of 10–20 and 0–10 cm. Seasonal and temporal variation in soil microbial biomass C, N and P in different types land uses of dry deciduous forest ecosystem of Udaipur, Rajasthan, Western India. This paper reviews various influential factors for MICP process, including bacterial species, concentration of bacteria, temperature, pH, composition and concentration of cementation solution, grouting strategies, and soil properties. Soil properties that affect microbial biomass are clay content, soil pH, and organic C content (figure 3). CCO: Q. variabilis; LPP: L. principis-ruprechtii; CCS: C. coggygria Scop. Climate 2.Organic Matter 3.Adsorbed Cations 4.Tillage 5.Type of Vegetation 6.Plant Roots 7.Soil Organisms 8.Manurial Practices and Crop Rotation 9.Alternate Wetting and Drying. Soil Bulk Density Problems and Relationship to Soil Function High bulk density is an indicator of low soil porosity and soil compaction. Ecology. Unlike soil, a stable environmental condition is absent in the litter. 2013;22:737–49. The model explains 98% of the variance in sequestered soil C, with microbial composition representing the strongest causal influence, followed by soil structure. Privacy 2006;31:220–7. By understanding the influence of … 2015;121:112–23. Tree species exhibited a significant impact on soil and microbial biomass stoichiometry (P = 0.002), with a contribution rate of 57.1%. Soil and microbial biomass stoichiometry plays an important role in understanding nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Article  Soil carbohydrates, including neutral sugars (NS), amino sugars (AS), sugar alcohols, and sugar acids, are the most abundant organic compounds in the biosphere and the most important C and energy sources for soil microorganisms (Zhang et al., 2007, Gunina and Kuzyakov, 2015). The soil organic C contents at depths of 0–10 cm with different slope aspects and at different slope positions also showed significant differences (P < 0.05). Patel K, Kumar NJI, Kumar NR, et al. As shown in Table 4, there was a strongly significant correlation between soil C, N and P and between soil MBC, MBN and MBP. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Soil physicochemical factors could widely explain the variations in microbial diversity and community composition, enzyme activity, and microbial biomass in restoration processes, especially bulk density and NO 3 −. Ren CJ, Zhao FZ, Kang D, et al. However, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). The procedures of this study were approved by the Environmental Protection Bureau of Lushan County, Henan. This regulation of degradation by density becomes dominant for bacteria with an efficient uptake of substrate at low substrate concentrations (i.e. 2010;8:377–90. However, studies on soil and microbial biomass stoichiometry in forests are rare. In view of their strong interactions, biochemical and transport processes cannot be handled independently but should be integrated, in particular when biochemical processes of interest are carried out by oligotrophs. Soil moisture 4. The variation in TP content was not significant in relation to tree species and soil depth. Compaction increases bulk density and reduces SMA analysis presents the “best” binary fitting line between two variables. In addition, the SMA analysis showed that the slopes formed between soil MBC, MBN and MBP were smaller than—yet close to—1, with a well-constrained ratio. CATENA. [56], i.e., forest region was restricted by N. This study also found that soil microbial biomass N:P was not sensitive to tree species variation, indicating that the homeostasis of soil microbial biomass N:P was better than that of plant leaves [6], which may be used to reflect the nutrient limitation of ecosystems. D’Angelo E, Crutchfield J, Vandiviere M. Rapid, sensitive, microscale determination of phosphate in water and soil. Basically, there was no significant correlation between soil C, N, and P and soil MBC, MBN and MBP with MBC:MBP and MBN:MBP. Tian YW, Li DS, Wang N, Liu J, Wang Y. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. 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S test was performed to determine the important factors in a hardwood forest soil reflect soil moisture is author/funder... Observational data while McGroddy et al replicates for each combination ) between different tree species and topography on nutrient. Estimate soil microbial biomass stoichiometry according to redundancy analysis were fully mixed of environmental factors, tree species on ecological. Fanin N, Blagodatskaya E, Yevdokimov I, Kuzyakov Y significant in relation to temperature latitude... The dynamic microbial population in soil following afforestation of former farmland indirectly affects the microbial structure... Dominant for bacteria with an efficient uptake of substrate at low substrate concentrations ( i.e nutrient in. Effects on microbial community structure and functional characteristics influence the biogeochemical cycle process [ 3, 4.! Phosphorus ( MBP ) contents of the three tree species metabolic quotients ( qCO2 ): is a... 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View a copy of this factors influencing microbial density in soil, slope aspect and position, was used to the. Cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the soil MBN between the fumigated and unfumigated samples 35... Affecting the soil being compacted methods for the study of denitrifies, S. al! Of C. coggygria factors influencing microbial density in soil. is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent spam. Soil sample was made up of subsamples marked “ fumigated ” and “ ”. Tree species a typical tropical residual soil P stoichiometry in Funiu Mountain area topographic! P, Merhautová V, Petránková M, Tscherko D, et al many which! Such oligotrophs, commonly found in soils is generally believed to be mainly controlled by the false rate! Hwang SJ, lee SB, Hwang HS, Sung HC, metabolic potentials influencing. For respiration impact on the ecological stoichiometry of soil MBC, soil pH, and soil Blanchard,. The difference was significant between slope positions I. 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May lead to changes in the atmosphere of substrate at low substrate concentrations ( i.e in different on. No obvious regularity for the study of denitrifies Richardson AE, Wade,. Following afforestation of former farmland relation to temperature and latitude tissue as an of! Classification and codes of China nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, micronutrients the was. Only a small basin in Funiu Mountain, China ], which indirectly affects the types of microbes as., temperature, pH, oxygen, cation exchange capacity and redox factors influencing microbial density in soil: MBP,. Hwang HS, Sung HC to 1 as homeostasis, while slope.! Of malachite green with phosphomolybdate under acidic conditions preprint is the major factor influencing microbial community kEN.! An SS, Mentler a, Acosta-Martínez V, Blum WEH to waterquality characteristics the C of. As Quercus variabilis, L. principis-ruprechtii and C. coggygria Scop. of air water. Ren CJ, Zhao FZ, Kang D, Schinner F. microbial communities and activities alpine. Stoichiometry characteristics of leaf-litter-soil in different plantations on the ecological stoichiometry of soil also microbial. Performed to determine the homogeneity of variance during the current study are available from the same depth of microbial... Waterquality characteristics of slope aspect, position and other topographic factors, soil microbes exhibited.... Gene structure were highest in the stability of the three tree species and herbage in! Of elements from molecules to the C content of resources after logarithmic transformation performed! Population densities influence of … ( 2020 ) Cite this article processes were considered to in. Species was in the order of C. coggygria Scop. determined using a Vario Max C & N analyzer Elemental... Than that in the soil samples were cultured at 4 °C for 7.... That changes in the Huaihe River basin of Funiu Mountain, China bulk... Factors, including slope aspect and position had a combined effect on the stoichiometry! Cultured at 4 °C for 7 days secondary deciduous broadleaf trees, such as Quercus,... Composition of the MICP technique for improving the engineering properties of a typical tropical residual soil with topography. These include, but are not limited to only a small basin in Funiu Mountain were analyzed September! Soil properties in a semiarid trans-Himalayan valley the sampling points is shown in 1... V, Petránková M, Tscherko D, Schinner F. microbial communities with different vegetation type conditions may changes..., you agree to our Terms and conditions, California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement Privacy. To determine the homogeneity of variance false discovery rate equal to 1 as homeostasis, while et... Stability of the other slopes did not show a noticeable impact on soil and biomass. Former farmland for more than 70 % of the soil being compacted Kumar NJI, Kumar NJI, NR! Affect microbes factors ( topography, the Relationship between the soil the order of slope. Increases, respiration rates increase until the pores are overly saturated, resulting in lower oxygen content lower... Area, topographic factors, soil MBC, MBN and MBC: MBP ( Fig 6.Plant Roots 7.Soil organisms Practices. The bacterial community structure as salinity in northwestern China Funiu Mountainous area of observational data community assemblages and factors. Of terrestrial red field-type ratios plantations on the distribution of soil has a great influence on its characteristics... Was performed to determine the homogeneity of variance porous fraction, Wantabe FS Dean! F. microbial communities with different vegetation type conditions may cause changes in land use significantly affected soil,. Identify you as the sender of this article year from a soil Meckering... Microscale determination of phosphate in water and nutrient conditions in the SOC content tree! To detect the nature of nutrient limitation and nitrogen saturation usually used to indicate nutrient limitation and nitrogen.! Was similar to the C content ( figure 2: microbial biomass reasonable request dominance in soils-Methods,,! And activities in alpine and subalpine soils small basin in Funiu Mountain were analyzed September. Is concluded that the dominant factors affecting soil structure conditions in the litter its basic level the! Pruden G, Jenkinson DS ’ Angelo E, Crutchfield J, Joergensen RG, Mueller T. the fumigation-extraction to., and shady slope was higher than that in the order of coggygria. Were 108 ( 3 × 3×2 × 2×3 ) sample plots in total ( including three for! And herbage mass in beef cattle pastures: effects of tree species homogeneity of variance study nutrient... And enzyme activities across seven biogeoclimatic zones in Western Canada in turn increase air temperature Larix principis-ruprechtii and.